The company provides advice at all stages of the
process/project, identifying statutory requirements and determining the best
approach to a particular project taking both heritage value and the client’s
requirements into account.
An appraisal is a preliminary step in some projects.
It may involve a site visit but will not usually involve detailed research.
The outcome is a brief report or letter outlining
the potential heritage constraints of a particular project. If there
are no obvious constraints then this may be the final stage of analysis.
This stage also includes desktop studies, which are
frequently employed when a number of options are being considered. Examples
include road, rail and utility (water pipelines, telecommunications,
This involves more detailed on site and archival (historical)
Background research will precede visual inspection
of the site, which will normally involve some subsurface testing with
probe, spade or auger to identify the nature and extent of heritage remains.
Occasionally, remote sensing techniques will be employed.
Aerial photographs, GPS and GIS are usually employed in the analysis
and recording of the heritage sites.
A report is prepared to meet the statutory requirements
of the RMA and HPA. Reports include an AEE statement, precise location
and evaluation of the heritage remains in the project area and a series
of general and site specific recommendations guiding the client through
the statutory processes.
ASSESSMENT OF MAORI VALUES
Assessment of the value placed by Maori on their cultural
heritage sites and the impacts of development proposals on those values
is an essential part of the process, but can only be undertaken by the
Clough & Associates has undertaken or been involved
in the iwi consultation process when requested by the client, but generally
iwi prefer to consult directly with the client. Archaeological assessments
should be provided to the tangata whenua and are often of assistance
to them in the preparation of their reports. Clough & Associates has
also carried out assessments for iwi in support of Waitangi Tribunal
Statutory requirements for heritage largely fall under
the HPA 1993 and RMA 1991. Under the HPA assessments for S11 or S12 authorities
to modify or destroy archaeological sites may be required. If the consent
is granted (under Section 14 /15 of the Act) the requirements are set
out in the authority. These could involve monitoring of earthworks or
a full scale investigation and recording of all archaeological remains,
with a detailed report to the HPT.
TLAs are responsible for heritage under Sections 6
and 7 of the RMA. Further requirements relating to heritage are often
defined in the conditions of the Resource Consent. These usually identify
protocols to be followed in the event of unearthing archaeological remains
and whether or not monitoring of the earthworks is required. TLAs are
also responsible under the RMA for identifying significant heritage within
their boundaries. There are greater constraints on proposals affecting
items scheduled in District Plans.
Today, many projects proceed through Territorial Local
and Regional Authority planning hearings. Some, particularly sensitive
issues such as landfill, quarrying and large scale utility projects,
end up in the Environment Court and occasionally the High Court.
At each of these stages, the archaeologist can be
called upon to provide evidence as an expert witness - even when there
is no significant archaeology on the site. Clough & Associates has
had extensive experience in providing such evidence.
A common condition of an HPT Authority is monitoring
of earthworks by an archaeologist, particularly in areas with a high
probability of heritage remains. Clough & Associates has had considerable
experience in site monitoring. Depending on circumstances and heritage
potential, monitoring may involve being on site for all initial earthworks,
or be confined to regular spot checks, or simply being on call should
any remains be uncovered.
When recorded sites are to be destroyed by development,
a site investigation under S15 of the HPA is likely to be required as
a condition of the authority. Under S17 of the HPA this must be carried
out by an appropriately qualified archaeologist approved by the HPT.
Investigation of the site using standard archaeological
recording techniques must be carried out prior to earthmoving and construction
works. Cultural material such as midden and artefacts are analysed following
the site investigation, and a detailed technical report on the investigation
must be submitted to the HPT.
Clough & Associates has carried out numerous site
investigations, of both Maori and 19th century European archaeological
Conservation Plans are prepared to guide the management
of historic buildings or sites. They incorporate a detailed history of
the historic place, an assessment of the cultural heritage significance
of the place and its component parts, and a range of policies designed
to ensure that the significance of the place is preserved.
Conservation Plans should be prepared to ICOMOS standards
following the accepted practice as set out in J.S. Kerr,The Conservation
Plan (The National Trust of Australia, NSW, 1990). and Guidelines
for Preparing Conservation Plans (Wellington, NZ Historic Places
Clough & Associates Ltd has been involved in the preparation
of a number of conservation plans.